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NEWS EVENT: July, 2003 update of 'New World' discovery theory, author Gavin Menzies' book: "1421-The Year China Discovered The World" China Seas Voyaging Society continually seeks to fulfill its mission and purpose of increasing the awareness of the world to the impact of the Chinese Junk sailing vessel as a living showcase of the arts and culture of the ancient and modern Chinese people and thus presents the following "historically astounding theory" as published in the following book......... .... 1421 The Year China Discovered the World, Gavin Menzies, Pub: Bantam Press, London. "....On the 8th of March, 1421, the largest fleet the world had ever seen sailed from its base in China. The ships, huge junks nearly five hundred feet long and built from the finest teak, were under the command of Emperor Zhu Di's loyal eunuch admirals. Their mission was 'to proceed all the way to the end of the earth to collect tribute from the barbarians beyond the seas' and unite the whole world in Confucian harmony. The jouney would last over two years and circle the globe. When they returned Zhu Di lost control and China was beginning its long, self-imposed isolation from the world it had so recently embraced. The great ships rotted at their moorings and the records of their journeys were destroyed. Lost was the knowledge that Chinese ships had reached America seventy years before Columbus and circumnavigated the globe a century before Magellan. They had also discovered Antarctica, reached Australia three hundred and fifty years before Cook and solved the problem of longitude three hundred years before the Europeans......" This excerpt and much more can be found at the website: "The Year China Discovered The World"

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Mariners' Museum

AOL Hometown


Sites of REAL Chinese Junks or about them ...

(Very beautiful site !! Check out the bottom picture !!)

Name: Keith Wheeler
E-mail address:
Comments: I have a bound volume of about 23 watercolours on rice paper,
restored by the Greenwich Maritime Museum in London, and bound in
Morrocco leather. All pictures are different and illustrate the different uses that
junks employed - e.g. for rearing ducks; for farming carp; etc. etc. They must
be of late 19th century origin and all are in excellent condition. Interested?


Chinese game for computer demo.....





Audemard L., 1957, Les Jonques Chinoises. (Rotterdam)[junks chinese.china junks of]

Dars J., 1979, Les jonques chinoises de hautes mer sous les Son les Yuan. Archipel, 18. (Paris)[china junks of.junks chinese]

Doran E., 1973, Nao, Junk and Vaka. (Austen)[nao.junks.vaka]

Mannweiler H., 1979 , Einige Bemerkungen uber chinesische Dschunken. Das Logbuch, 15.4.[china junks of.petchili junk.junk petchili]

Mannweiler H., 1980 , Beschreibungen einer chinesischen Dschunken. Das Logbuch, 16.[china junks of.petchili junk]

Waters D.W., 1939 , Chinese junks: the Pechili Trader. Mariner's Mirror, 25: 62-88.[junk pechili.pechili junk.junks typology of]

Waters D.W., 1946 , Chinese junks: the Twaquo. Mariner's Mirror, 32: 155-67.[junk twaquo.twaquo junk.junks typology of]

Waters D.W., 1983 , Chines junks: the Antung Trader. Mariner's Mirror, 24: 49-67.[junk antung.antung junk.junks typology of]

Worcester G.R.G., 1947 , Junks and Sampans of the Yangtze. [yangtze junks and sampans of.junks yangzte.sampans yangtze]

Worcester G.R.G., 1955 , Footboats of Shaohsing. Mariner's Mirror, 41: 222-6.[footboats.shaohsing footboats.chinese boats]

Worcester G.R.G., 1956 , Origins and observance of the Dragon boat festival in China. Mariner's Mirror, 42: 127-37.[dragon boat chinese.chinese dragon boats]

Worcester G.R.G., 1956 , Notes on the canoes of British Guiana. Mariner's Mirror, 42: 249-251.[canoes guianese.british guiana canoes]

Worcester G.R.G., 1966, Sail and Sweep in China. (London)[china sail and oar in]

Worcester G.R.G., 1971, The junks and sampans of the Yangtze. Naval Institute Press. (Annapolis)[junks yangtze.sampans yangtze.yangtze junks and sampans of.china boats of]

Yang Hung., 1979, The Navy and its Warships in Ancient China. Wen Wu Tian Di, 3. (Peking)[china ancient warships of]


Atkinson, K., Green, J.N., Harper, R. and Intakosai, V., 1989, Joint Thai-Australian underwater archaeological project 1987-88. Part 1: Archaeological survey of wreck sites in the Gulf of Thailand, 1987-1988. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, in press.

Brown, R., 1975, Preliminary report on the Ko Khram sunken ship. Oriental Art, 21(4): 356-370.

Cembrano, M.R., 1988, Excavations in the Balangay area, Butuan, Northeast Mindanao. Papers of the Research Centre of Southeast Asian Ceramics, Adelaide, (in press).

Clark, P., Conese, E., Green, J.N. and Nicholas, N., 1989, Philippines archaeological site survey, February 1988. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, in press.

Conese, E.T., 1985, Annual report of the Underwater Archaeology Unit of the National Museum of the Philippines. National Museum of the Philippines, Manila.

Conese, E.T., 1987, Brief report on fieldwork undertaken at Quiniluban Group of islands, Palawan. National Museum of the Philippines, Manila.

Goddio, F., 1987, Eventment archeologique sur les cotes des Philippines, la fouille exemplaire du Royal

Captain Shoal, une jonque du XVIe s. choe sur un atol. Dossiers Histoire et Archeologie, 113:1-98.

Green, J.N. and Harper, R., 1983, The excavation of the Pattaya wreck site and survey of three other sites, Thailand, 1982. Australian Institute for Maritime Archaeology special publication No. 1.

Green, J.N. and Harper, R., 1987, The maritime archaeology of shipwrecks and ceramics in Southeast Asia. Australian Institute for Maritime Archaeology special publication No. 4.

Green, J.N. and Kim, Z.G., 1989, The Shinan and Wando sites, Korea: further information. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 18(1): 33-41.

Green, J.N., 1981, Further light on the Koh Khram wrecksite. Trans. S.E. Asian Ceramic Society, 8:18-26.

Green, J.N., 1983i, The Song dynasty shipwreck at Quanzhou, Fujian Province, People's Republic of China. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 12(3):253-261.

Green, J.N., 1983ii, The Shinan excavation: an interim report on the hull structure.International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 12(4):293-301.

Green, J.N., Harper, R. and Prischanchittara, S., 1981, The Excavation of the Ko Kradat Wrecksite Thailand 1979-1980. Report Dept. Maritime Archaeology, Western Australian Maritime Museum: No.17.

Green, J.N., Harper, R. Intakosi, V., 1986, The Ko Si Chang One shipwreck excavation 1983-1985. A progress report. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology , 15(2):105-122.

Green, J.N., Harper, R. Intakosi, V., 1987, The Ko Si Chang Three shipwreck excavation 1986. Australian Institute for Maritime Archaeology Special Publication No. 4.

Hornell, J., 1934, The origin of the junk and sampan. Mariner's Mirror, 20:331-337.

Howitz, P.C., 1977, Two ancient shipwrecks from the Gulf of Siam. A report on archaeological investigations. Journal of the Siam Society, 65:1-22.

Howitz, P.C., 1979, Ceramics from the sea, evidence from the Ko Kradat shipwreck excavated 1979. Archaeology Division, Silpakorn University, Bangkok.

Intakosai, V., 1983, Rang-Kwien and Samed Ngam shipwrecks. SPAFA Digest, 4.2:30-34.

Kim, Z.G., 1980, The report on the Shinan seabottom relics excavation: study of the submerged hull (Translation from Korean). Cultural Properties Maintenance Office, Seoul.

Kim, Z.G., 1985, Study of Korean ship history (In Korean). Korean Cultural Research Institute Series No. 24, Seoul.

Lo, Jung-pang, 1958, The decline of the early Ming navy. Oriens Extremus (Hamburg), 5:149-168.

Moreland, W.H., 1939, Ships of the Arabian Sea about A.D. 1500. J.Royal Asiatic Soc. (April): 63 -173.

Manguin, P.Y., 1985, Sewn-plank craft of South-East Asia, a preliminary survey. In: S. McGrail, Sewn plank boats. Archaeological and ethnographic papers based on those presented to a conference at Greenwich in November, 1984. British Archaeological Reports International Series 275, Oxford.

Needham, J., Ling, W. and Gwei-Djen, L., 1971, Science and civilization in China. Vol.4. Physics and physical technology, Part 3. Civil engineering and nautics. Cambridge University Press.

Peralta, J.T., 1980, Ancient mariners of the Philippines. Archaeology (New York),35(5):41-48.

Ronquillo, W.P., 1987, The Butuan archaeological finds: profound implications for Philippines and Southeast Asian prehistory. Man and Culture in Oceania (special issue), 3:71-78.

Scott, W.H., 1981, Boat building and seamanship in classic Philippine society. Anthropological Papers (National Museum, Manila),9: 1-38.

Song Shipwreck (archaeological group), 1975i, The Song Dynasty shipwreck excavated at Quanzhou harbour. The excavation (translated from Chinese). Wen Wu, 10:1-18.

Song Shipwreck (Department of History, Xiamen University), 1975ii, History of the port of Quanzhou in the Song and Yuan Dynasties (translated from Chinese).Wen Wu , 10:19-23.

Song Shipwreck (ship wreck reconstruction group), 1975iv, The reconstruction of the ship after recovery (translated from Chinese). Wen Wu , 10:28-34.

Song Shipwreck (Wang Zeng Yu), 1975iii, Naval construction during the Song Dynasty (translated from Chinese). Wen Wu , 10:24-27.

Waters, D.W., 1938, Chinese junks : the Antung Trader. Mariner's Mirror , 24:49-67.

Waters, D.W., 1939, Chinese junks : the Pechili Trader. Mariner's Mirror , 25:62-88.

Waters, D.W., 1946, Chinese junks : the Twaquo. Mariner's Mirror , 32:155-67.

Worcester, G.R.G., 1971, The junks and sampans of the Yangtze. Naval Institute Press, Maryland.

01/12/00: - order autum 1999 for Mandarin Star in Harbor - old friend

Junk Cruise:





"Setting Sails -- A tribute to the Chinese Junk" Written by Derek Maitland. Photographs by Nik Wheeler. "A South China Morning Post Publication." (Hong Kong, 1981)


Rig Sail

Chinese Schooner Lug Sail

DEAD LINKS - glass bottom chinese junk